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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 37-42

The mala fides of BRAF in oncogenesis

1 Departments of Laboratory; Transfusion Services; Research; Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Delhi, India
2 Department of Research, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Delhi, India
3 Department of Laboratory, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Anurag Mehta
Director Laboratory, Molecular Diagnostic Services & Research Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Centre, Sector-V, Rohini, Delhi- 110085.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jco.jco_25_19

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BRAF is a proto-oncogene that encodes a serine threonine kinase belonging to intracellular RAS-RAF-MEK& ERK signaling cascade downstream of surface Receptor Tyrosine Kinase. The gain of function mutations in BRAF gene have been shown to have a powerful oncogenic effect especially a transversion at nucleotide 1,799 from thymidine to adenine (p.V600E), accounting for greater than 80% of the observed mutations in BRAF. This one mutation has been identified as an oncogenic driver in a diverse set of solid and hematologic cancers. Fortunately, introduction of BRAF & MEK inhibitors has modestly transformed the treatment outcomes in patients with BRAF mutations, especially those with non-small cell lung carcinoma, melanoma and thyroid cancers. Besides, the predictive nature of BRAF mutation, the mutational analysis also helps predict prognosis and secure diagnosis of a varied group of malignancies. This review comprehensively addresses to the various mala fides of BRAF in oncogenesis, as well as elucidates the nucleotide variants which have been reported in literature, the diagnostic and prognostic utility, and the testing methods which are available to test the same.

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