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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: The MEK–ERK pathway. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) binds with its ligand growth factor (GF) that leads to binding of docker protein GRB2 to its intracytoplasmic portion, which in turn binds to Son of Sevenless (SOS). SOS transfers GTP to RAS and activates it. The GTP RAS activates BRAF by dimerization. Resultant downstream signaling activates MEK and ERK proteins. The ERK protein internalizes to nucleus and initiates transcription of several proteins involved in cell division, differentiation, inhibition of apoptosis, and secretion. ER, FOS, GLUT1, CCND, cMYC, B3 integrin, and VEGF are positive regulators. DUSP and SPRY are autoregulatory proteins of the MEK–ERK pathway. BAD and BIM are inactivated. (Copyright Dr A. Mehta)

Figure 1: The MEK–ERK pathway. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) binds with its ligand growth factor (GF) that leads to binding of docker protein GRB2 to its intracytoplasmic portion, which in turn binds to Son of Sevenless (SOS). SOS transfers GTP to RAS and activates it. The GTP RAS activates BRAF by dimerization. Resultant downstream signaling activates MEK and ERK proteins. The ERK protein internalizes to nucleus and initiates transcription of several proteins involved in cell division, differentiation, inhibition of apoptosis, and secretion. ER, FOS, GLUT1, CCND, cMYC, B3 integrin, and VEGF are positive regulators. DUSP and SPRY are autoregulatory proteins of the MEK–ERK pathway. BAD and BIM are inactivated. (Copyright Dr A. Mehta)